Natural rubber is an elastomer and a thermoplastic. Types of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Due to the presence of weakened allylic C-H bonds in each repeat unit, natural rubber is susceptible to vulcanisation as well as being sensitive to ozone cracking. The use of rubber in car tires (initially solid rather than pneumatic) in particular consumed a significant amount of rubber. Next to cotton, jute is the second important fibre crop of India.  , To have a source of fiber to utilize in production, the fiber first must be extracted from the plant. It was not until the introduction of wood pulp in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. Rubber strain crystallizes. Food crops, such as fruit and vegetables, are harvested for human consumption. The major crops in India can be divided into four categories viz. , In Singapore and Malaya, commercial production was heavily promoted by Sir Henry Nicholas Ridley, who served as the first Scientific Director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens from 1888 to 1911. In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of natural latex from the Hevea tree comes from the Olmec culture, in which rubber was first used for making balls for the Mesoamerican ballgame. The cups are supported by a wire that encircles the tree. the three most notable examples include: Cotton Cotton is the most popular and widely used fibre crop. India is top producer country of many crops. Cotton: Cotton is the most important fibre crop of India. Tactics to enforce the rubber quotas included removing the hands of victims to prove they had been killed. Brainly User Brainly User Jute.  A process for removing printing inks from recycled paper was invented by German jurist Justus Claproth in 1774. He distributed rubber seeds to many planters and developed the first technique for tapping trees for latex without causing serious harm to the tree. "Cured rubber" is rubber that has been compounded and subjected to the vulcanisation process to create cross-links within the rubber matrix. While trees can be harvested continuously, many field crops are harvested once during the year and must be stored such that the crop doesn't rot over a period of many months. The monomer adds to the pyrophosphate end of the growing polymer. Fibre crops include a wide variety of plants of fibrous biomass that are grown annually or seasonally at specific weather and climatic conditions of a country. Rubber. The three largest producers, Thailand, Indonesia  and Malaysia, together account for around 72% of all natural rubber production. It also made the reliance on recycling old textiles irrelevant. The term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. Fiber crops are generally harvestable after a single growing season, as distinct from trees, which are typically grown for many years before being harvested for such materials as wood pulp fiber or lacebark. Because rubber does not dissolve easily, the material is finely divided by shredding prior to its immersion. Rubber latex is extracted from rubber trees.  In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie (published in 1755) that described many of rubber's properties. , In India, commercial cultivation was introduced by British planters, although the experimental efforts to grow rubber on a commercial scale were initiated as early as 1873 at the Calcutta Botanical Gardens. Rubber is an equatorial crop but it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas. owariensis).. The rubber particle is an enzymatically active entity that contains three layers of material, the rubber particle, a biomembrane and free monomeric units. , Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Nonwood Alternatives to Wood Fiber in Paper", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fiber_crop&oldid=998766243, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles needing additional references from January 2021, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Other fibers (Leaf, fruit, and other fibers), This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 23:07. Zunfeng Liu, a materials scientist at the University of Texas at Dallas, and colleagues stretched a 2-millimeter-diameter rubber fiber to about 15 times its original length and wrapped it in conductive sheets of carbon nanotubes (SN: 12/4/10, p. Check the below NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture with Answers Pdf free download. Fiber crops are characterized by having a large concentration of cellulose, which is what gives them their strength. Considering that many pulp mills require several thousand tonnes of fiber source per day, storage of the fiber source can be a major issue. It is of higher purity and of greater value than the other three types. The fiber is composed of the natural cellulosic material which is used for the production of the cotton ropes from fibres and clothes. , "Rubber" and "India rubber" redirect here. It needs rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature above 25 °C. Cotton and jute are the two most important fibre crops of India. The restoring force is due to the preponderance of wrinkled conformations over more linear ones. The bacteria Streptomyces coelicolor, Pseudomonas citronellolis, and Nocardia spp. Which one of the following crops is a beverage crop? In specific circumstances, fiber crops can be superior to wood pulp fiber in terms of technical performance, environmental impact or cost.. Question 30: Name the state which grows most of Indiaâs natural rubber. It is usual to tap a pannel at least twice, sometimes three times, during the tree's life. Thailand and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers. The dried material is then baled and palletized for storage and shipment. Tree lace and cup lump together account for 10%–20% of the dry rubber produced. For man-made rubber materials, see, Heinz-Hermann Greve "Rubber, 2. PLEASE MARK AS BRAINLIEST AND GET 3 â¦ Smallholders' lump is produced by smallholders, who collect rubber from trees far from the nearest factory. Rubber particles are formed in the cytoplasm of specialized latex-producing cells called laticifers within rubber plants. Many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the Pará. , In the early 1900s, the Congo Free State in Africa was also a significant source of natural rubber latex, mostly gathered by forced labor. The rubber precursor is isopentenyl pyrophosphate (an allylic compound), which elongates by Mg2+-dependent condensation by the action of rubber transferase. Haz clic aquí ð para obtener una respuesta a tu pregunta ï¸ Which of the following is a fibre crop a) Cotton B) sweet potato C) Rice D) Tea Latex from non-Hevea sources, such as Guayule, can be used without allergic reaction by persons with an allergy to Hevea latex. We have Provided Agriculture Class 10 Geography MCQs Questions with Answers to help students understand the concept very well. Encyclopedia of American Indian Contributions to the World: 15,000 Years of Inventions and Innovations. The other fiber crop fibers are hard/leaf fibers (come from the entirety of plant vascular bundles) and surface fibers (come from plant epidermal tissue). Which of the following is a fibre crop ? Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the rubber tree or others. Natural rubber: Damaged by petroleum solvents and chlorinated hydrocarbons; Degraded by oxygen, light, heat, oils, and oxidizing acids. The latex exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. This is the epidermal hairs on the seeds of the crop plants.  The glass transition is fast and reversible: the force resumes on heating.  In 2013, by inhibiting one key enzyme and using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME) in Germany developed a cultivar of the Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz) that is suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. Question 38. None of these. MCQ Questions for Class 10 Social Science with Answers was Prepared Based on Latest Exam Pattern. Uncured rubber is used for cements; for adhesive, insulating, and friction tapes; and for crepe rubber used in insulating blankets and footwear. Natural rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, caucho or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.Thailand and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers.  The industry can mitigate these bad odours with scrubber systems.. The four types of field coagula are "cuplump", "treelace", "smallholders' lump" and "earth scrap".  The remainder is synthetic rubber derived from petrochemical sources. The latex is refined and proce. The required isopentenyl pyrophosphate is obtained from the mevalonate pathway, which derives from acetyl-CoA in the cytosol. Rubber's stress–strain behavior exhibits the Mullins effect and the Payne effect and is often modeled as hyperelastic. 11Th â¦ Trees are usually tapped on alternate or third days, although many variations in timing, length and number of cuts are used. (a) Yemen (b) Vietnam (c) Japan (d) Korea (a) Yemen 42. Around 25 million tonnes of rubber are produced each year, of which 30 percent is natural. As the cost of natural rubber has risen significantly and rubber products are dense, the shipping methods offering the lowest cost per unit weight are preferred. Some smallholders use small containers, buckets etc., but often the latex is coagulated in holes in the ground, which are usually lined with plastic sheeting. Question 29: Name the countries from where rubber is imported. In Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. The antigenic proteins found in Hevea latex may be deliberately reduced (though not eliminated) through processing.  Some of them require more elaborate processing to produce anything like usable rubber, and most are more difficult to tap. Little care is taken to exclude twigs, leaves, and even bark from the lumps that are formed, which may also include tree lace. Cotton is a kharif crop which requires 6 to 8 months to mature. (i) Jute is called the golden fibre. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low and varies greatly. The initiation step is catalyzed by prenyltransferase, which converts three monomers of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into farnesyl pyrophosphate. (a) Tea (b) Cotton (c) Wheat (d) Bajra (a) Tea 41. The coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for sale. (1998) Microbial degradation of natural and synthetic rubbers by novel bacteria belonging to the genus Gordona. Answer: Jute. Sun-hemp: a. Botanical Name: Crotolaria juncia . In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup. An ammonia solution can be used to prevent the coagulation of raw latex. Fiber crops include annual and perennial species of different botanical families. please follow me and Mark it as brainliest answer. They together consume about 57.8% of the total rubber production. Latex is the polymer cis-1,4-polyisoprene – with a molecular weight of 100,000 to 1,000,000 daltons. 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